In China, motorcycle accidents frequent, in the accident motorcycle driver a passenger vulnerable to serious injuries. After the accident, the scene is usually more chaotic, if there are two motorcycle victims, it is difficult to identify who is the forensic motorcycle driver, so the police and the judge is difficult to determine the responsibility of the victim. The author established two typical motorcycle accident cases, and its analysis. Analyzes the movement and the degree of injury of the motorcycle driver and the rear passenger during the collision. When the motorcycle hit the car, the driver and rear passengers were thrown out of the inertia. The distance between the driver and the rear passenger being thrown away and the degree of head injury. The results can help forensic experts deal with similar motorcycle crash accidents. The authors use numerical algorithms (eg, modified Euler or Runge-Kutta) to predict the motion of systems of bodies connected by kinematic joints, based on initial conditions and the inertial properties of the bodies.
Accident one, the motorcycle suddenly hit the left rear of a car, two people on the motorcycle were thrown out, the victim A from the motorcycle 715cm, the main fatal injury from the head and brain, died on the spot. Victims B from the motorcycle 105cm, head limbs and other parts of the injury, survived in the hospital. The police think that the back-seat occupant on the motorcycle might be thrown farther away from the motorcycle than the motorcycle driver when the collision happened, so it can be assumed that B is the driver and he should be responsible for the accident. But B denied that he was a driver, and did not plead guilty in the court, so the police cannot be absolutely confirmed.
Accident two, at the crossroads of a moped in the red light when driving continued to lead a car from the right hit the motorcycle. A victim’s right leg and head were fatal blows in the accident, were taken to hospital for treatment, and unfortunately died in the hospital. Another victim escaped from the location of the accident. Forensic that the deceased right leg is broken by the front of the car, if he is the driver, the legs will not be hit, so another person is the driver. But this assumption is determined before the accident can be judged.
The author uses the computer simulation method to restore the process of these two accidents, the results are the same as the previous assumptions, to determine the previous assumptions. The MADYMO [6-9] (mathematical dynamics model) used in the research has been widely used for accident reconstruction and that involving a lot of transport, such as motorcycles, cars (Lei, Xian-Long, Xiao-Yun, Jie, & Yi-Jiu, 2008).
The next step, I will make a detailed evaluation of this paper. The main comment about the credibility of the paper, the help for people, the author’s research methods and results and what I can learn from this paper.
What is the title and what does the title tell you about the paper?
The title of this paper is ‘study of batter combining computer simulation in motorcycle-car collision accidents’. I can get some information from this title. The first is the author of this paper to study the two motorcycles accident. The second, author using the research method is the computer simulation method.
Who is the paper written by and do they seem credible to you?
The author of this paper is Guo Lei, Shen Jie, Zhang Xiao-Yun, Jin Xian-Long. In fact, I do not understand these authors at all, but at the end of the paper, these authors are from Shanghai Jiaotong University and this paper published in Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Shanghai Jiaotong University is a famous university in China, Elsevier is one of the world’s largest medical and other scientific literature publishers, so I think this paper is credible to me. In addition, I searched a paper that is author’s reference. ” Injury patterns associated with drove motorcycle crashes” gives the result: in the motorcycle accident, the rear passengers are more likely to be seriously injured lead to death. This conclusion is very close to the paper I research.
Does it have a helpful abstract? Give reasons for your answer.
The abstract of this paper is very useful. In the beginning of the summary to write in this search, the author is using a computer simulation method to study, to solve the problem faced by forensic experts. In addition, abstract includes the approximate research process and the final results of the study, and this result can help forensic experts in the future to resolve a similar collision accident.
What did the author(s) do in their research, what research approach and what method(s) did they use?
In the research, the author refers to a lot of articles on computer simulation and motorcycle accident papers. The author detailed records of the computer simulation out of the car accident scene characteristics and data, and the simulation of the accident scene and the reality of the accident scene comparison, and finally concluded.
The authors used multi-body dynamics method is one of the most useful computer programming methodologies in the world, and it can simulate the dynamics response of complex multi-body systems.
Do you think the method(s) they used to be appropriate to the question they were asking? Explain why or why not.
I think the author’s method is very suitable for their problems, because when a car accident occurs usually do not record the process of car accident video, it is difficult to get the results in the car accident examples, computer simulation is a good choice, and can save cost. In addition, the authors use MADYMO [6-9] (mathematical dynamic model) is a software of the multi-body dynamics technique which has been most widely applied in injury biomechanics and accident reconstruction [10-12] have many means of transport such as Cars, motorcycles and bicycles.
What results does the paper report?
The paper describes the author after the search has got the following two results:
- In the computer simulation of the accident scene, the driver from the motorcycle 120cm. Rear passenger from the motorcycle 617cm. Comparing to the driver, the rear passenger was thrown very high, so there is no friction or collision with the front of the car so the drop point is far away from the motor, head suffered heavy injuries when landing, leading rear passenger to death. Therefore, concluded, the victim B is the driver and the victim A is the rear passenger in the accident one
- In the computer simulation of the accident scene, because the rear passenger want to keep a stable sitting on a motorcycle, the rear passengers put his legs on the pedal on both sides of the motorcycle, resulting in the rear passenger’s legs cannot escape when the car hit the motorcycle so his legs were broken. However, the driver was lucky because the driver put his legs on the big pedal of the mopeds, so he was safe to escape the accident. Thence, the man is the driver who escape the accident and the other person is the rear passenger.
Was the paper worth reading? Give reasons for your answer.
I think this paper is valuable to me because I like riding a motorcycle and usually riding very fast. After reading this paper, I clearly realized the process of the accident, If I met a motorcycle accident unfortunately in the future, I can handle it better. Besides, in these two motorcycle accidents, the victim did not bring the helmet is also a important cause of death and the author mentioned that if the victim with a helmet will not die.
Do you believe the results/findings or the paper? Give reasons for your answer.
The answer is yes. Because I hold the brakes of front wheel with force when I ride the motorcycle, the motorcycle ‘s rear wheel almost lifted to lead to roll. If in the motorcycle accident and there have rear passengers, the rear passengers will throw away very far by the power of the rear wheel.
What did you learn from reading the paper?
After reading this paper, I learned that in a motorcycle accident, the rear passengers received more serious damage than the driver. In addition, I have always thought that the results of computer simulation methods are not correct, and now I admit that this method is helpful at some time in the research.
Lei, G., Xian-Long, J., Xiao-Yun, Z., Jie, S., & Yi-Jiu, C. (2008). Study of injuries combining computer simulation in motorcycle-car collision accidents. Forensic Science International (Online), 90-96.